Sources of DNA Samples

What are sources and categories of DNA samples for Missing Persons?

There are three different categories associated with Missing Persons' Cases: Direct Reference Samples (DRS), Family Reference Samples (FRS), and Unidentified Human Remains Samples (UHR).

Direct Reference Sample (DRS): samples obtained directly from the missing person.

The following samples are considered acceptable for Missing Persons Direct Reference Samples:

  • Medically obtained blood cards, whole blood, or a tissue specimen that was collected from the missing person
  • A toothbrush used only by the missing person

Family Reference Samples (FRS): samples obtained from family members of the missing person. Close relatives and/or maternal relatives' samples are the most useful.

  • Buccal/Oral swabs
  • Blood Cards

Unidentified Human Remains Samples (UHR): samples obtained from unidentified human remains.

  • bones (skeletal remains)
  • tissue
  • teeth